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30 Exploring the sea-floor 海底勘探 (3分钟)

2012-5-17 15:16| 发布者: admin| 查看: 1803| 评论: 0|原作者: 裴爱玲

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Passage  30   Exploring the sea-floor   海底勘探
1.Our knowledge of the oceans a hundred years ago was confined to the two-dimensional shape of the sea surface and the hazards of navigation presented by the irregularities in depth of the shallow water close to the land.
2.The open sea was deep and mysterious, and anyone who gave more than a passing thought to the bottom confines of the oceans probably assumed that the sea bad was flat.
3.Sir James Clark Ross had obtained a sounding of over 2,400 fathoms in 1839, but it was not until 1869,when H.M.S.Porcupine was put at the disposal of the Royal Society for several cruises,that a series of deep soundings was obtained in the Atlantic and the first samples were collected by dredging the bottom.
4.Shortly after this the famous H. M. S. Challenger expedition established the study of the sea-floor as a subject worthy of the most qualified physicists and geologists.
5.A burst of activity associated with the laying of submarine cables soon confirmed the challenger's observation that many parts of the ocean were two to there miles deep, and the existence of underwater features of considerable magnitude.
6.Today, enough soundings are available to enable a relief map of the Atlantic to be drawn and we know something of the great variety of the sea bed's topography.
7.Since the sea covers the greater part of the earth's surface, it is quite reasonable to regard the sea floor as the basic form of the crust of the earth, with, superimposed upon, it the continents, together with the islands and other features of the oceans.
8.The continents form rugged tablelands which stand nearly three miles above the floor of the open ocean.
9.From the shore line, out a distance which may be anywhere from a few miles to a few hundred miles, runs the gentle slope of the continental shelf, geologically part of the continents.
10.The real dividing line between continents and oceans occurs at the foot a steeper slope.
11.This continental slope usually starts at a place somewhere near the 100-fatheom mark and in the course of a few hundred miles reaches the true ocean floor at 2,500-3,500 fathoms.
12.The slope averages about 1 in 30,but contains steep, probably vertical, cliffs, and gentle sediment-covered terraces, and near its lower reaches there is a long tailing-off which is almost certainly the result of material transported out to deep water after being eroded from the continental masses.

New words and expressions 生词和短语
knowledge of 知道
oceans 海洋(复数)
a hundred years ago 100年前
was confined to 限制在
the two-dimensional 二维的
sea surface 海面
hazards 危险(复数)
navigation 航行
irregularities in depth of 深浅不一
the shallow water 浅水区
close to 靠近
the land 陆地
open sea 无边无际的海
deep 深邃
mysterious 神秘
a passing thought to 悄悄想过
bottom 海底
flat 平坦的
Sir 爵士
James Clark Ross 詹姆斯.克拉克.罗斯
a sounding of 深度
fathoms 英寻
porcupine 豪猪
at the disposal of the Royal Society 皇家学会
cruises 巡航(复数)
a series of 一些
deep soundings 深度(复数)
the Atlantic 大西洋
the first samples 首批样品(复数)
dredging the bottom挖掘海底
shortly after 不久以后
challenger 挑战者
expedition 考察
established 确立
the study of 研究
sea-floor 海床
subject 课题
worthy of 值得
physicists 物理学家
geologists 地质学家
a burst of activity 热潮的爆发
associated with 关于
the laying of 铺设
submarine cables 海底电缆(复数)
confirmed 证实(过去式)
Challenger 挑战者号
observation 观察结果
many parts of 很多地方
miles 英里(复数)
existence 存在
underwater 水下
features 特征(复数)
considerable magnitude 相当大的差异
soundings 水深测量数据
are available to 可利用
a relief map 地形图
the Atlantic 大西洋
to be drawn 绘制(过去分词)
great variety of 千变万化
the sea bed 海底
topography 地形
since 既然
covers 覆盖(第三人称单数)
greater part of 大部分
surface 表面
quite 完全的
reasonable 有理由的
regard as 看作
sea floor 海床
basic form基本形式
the crust of the earth 地壳
superimposed upon附加
c着ontinents 大陆(复数)
islands 岛屿(复数)
features 形态(复数)
continents 大陆(复数)
form 形成
rugged 崎岖不平的
tablelands 高地(复数)
stand above 高出
nearly 将近
the open ocean 辽阔的海洋
the shore line 海岸线
out a distance 延伸
a few miles 几英里
a few hundred miles几百英里
the gentle slope of 慢坡
the continental shelf 大陆架
geologically 地质学的
continents 大陆(复数)
dividing line 分界线
continents 大陆(复数)
oceans 海洋(复数)
occurs 发生(第三人称单数)
at the foot 脚下
a steeper slope 陡坡
continental slope 大陆坡
starts at 开始(第三人称单数)
100-fatheom 100英寻
in the course of 延伸到
reaches 到达(第三人称单数)
ocean floor 海底
slope 坡度
averages 平均(第三人称单数)
1 in 30  1/30
contains 包括(第三人称单数)
steep 陡峭的
vertical 垂直的
cliffs 峭壁(复数)
gentle 缓和的
sediment-covered 沉淀物覆盖的
terraces 阶梯地带(复数)
lower reaches 下游
tailing-off  尾沙地段
certainly 断定
the result of 结果
material 物质
transported out被水冲到
deep water 深水处
eroded 侵蚀(过去分词)
continental masses 大陆块体






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