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41 Training elephants 训练大象 (5分钟)

2012-5-17 10:59| 发布者: admin| 查看: 1952| 评论: 0|原作者: 徐衍鲁

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Passage 41 Training elephants  训练大象
1.Two main techniques have been used for training elephants, which we may respectively the tough and
the gentle.
2.The former method simply consists of setting an elephant to work and beating him until he does
what is expected of him.
3.Apart from moral considerations this is a stupid method of training, for it produces a resentful
animal who at a later stage may well turn man-killer.
4.The gentle method requires more patience in the early stages, but produces a cheerful, good-
tempered elephant who will give many years of loyal service.
5.The first essential in elephant training is to assign to the animal a single mahout who will be
entirely responsible for the job.
6.Elephants like to have one master just as dogs do, and are capable of a considerable degree of
personal affection.
7.There are even stories of half-trained elephant calves who have refused to feed and pined to death
when by some unavoidable circumstance they have been deprived of their own trainer.
8.Such extreme cases must probably be taken with a grain of salt, but they do underline the general
principle that the relationship between elephant and mahout is the key to successful training.
9.The most economical age to capture an elephant for training is between fifteen and twenty years,
for it is then almost ready to undertake heavy work and can begin to earn its keep straight away.
10.But animals of this age do not easily become subservient to man, and a very time man, and a very
firm hand must be employed in the early stages.
11.The captive elephant, still roped to a tree, plunges and screams every time a man approaches, and
for several days will probably refuse all food through anger and fear.
12.Sometimes a tame elephant is tethered nearby to give the wild one confidence, and in most cases
the captive gradually quietens down and begins to accept its food.
13.The next stage is to get the elephant to the training establishment, a ticklish business which is
achieved with the aid of two tame elephants roped to the captive on either side.
14.When several elephants are being trained at one time, it is customary for the new arrival to be
placed between the stalls of two captives whose training is already well advanced.
15.It is then left completely undisturbed with plenty of food and water so that it can absorb the
atmosphere of its new home and see that nothing particularly alarming is happening to its companions.
16.When it is eating normally, its own training begins.
17.The trainer stands in front of the elephant holding a long stick with a sharp metal point.
18.Two assistants, mounted on tame elephants, control the captive from either side, while others rub
their hands over his skin to the accompaniment of a monotonous and soothing chant.
19.This is supposed to induce pleasurable sensations in the elephant, and its effects are reinforced
by the use of endearing epithets.
20.The elephant is not son', or 'ho! my father', or 'my mother', according to the age and sex of the
21.The elephant is not immediately susceptible to such blandishments, however, and usually lashes
fiercely with its trunk in all directions.
22.These movements are controlled by the trainer with the metal-pointed stick, and the trunk
eventually becomes so sore that the elephant curls it up and seldom afterwards uses it for offensive purposes.
New words and expressions 生词和短语
 1.techniques 方法(复数)
   have been used (现在完成时)
   training elephants 驯象
   respectively 分别
   tough 强硬的
   gentle 温柔的
 2.former 前者
   method 方法
   simply 简单地
   consists of 就是(单数)
   setting 驱使
   beating 打(v.-ing形式)
   expected 顺从(过去式)
 3.apart from 除了
   moral 道义的
   considerations 问题(复数)
   stupid 愚蠢的
   method 方法
   training 训练
   produces 产生
   resentful 反感的
   animal   动物
   stage 时期
   man-killer 伤人的动物
 4.gentle 温柔的
   requires 要求(单数)
   patience  耐心
   produces 训练出(单数)
   cheerful 愉快的
   good-tempered 脾气温顺的
   elephant 大象
   loyal 忠实的
   service 服务
 5.essential 至关重要的
   elephant 大象
   training 训练
   assign 指派
   animal 指大象
   single 一个
   mahout 驯象员
   entirely 全面地
   responsible 负责的
 6.elephants 大象(复数)
   master 主人
   capable 专一的
   considerable 相当
   degree 深厚
   personal 私人的
   affection 感情
 7.stories 故事(story的复数形式)
   half-trained 训练一半的
   elephant calves 小象
   have refused 拒绝(现在完成时)
   pined to death  消瘦至死(过去式)
   unavoidable 不可避免的
   circumstance 情况
   have been deprived 分离(现在完成时) 
   trainer 主人
 8.extreme 极端的
   probably 可能的
   be taken with a grain of salt 不可全信
   underline 强调
   general 基本的
   principle  原则
   relationship 关系
   mahout 驯象员
   the key to ...的关键
   successful 成功的
   training 训练
 9.economical 经济的
   capture 捕捉
   undertake 承受
   heavy 重的
   straight 很快的
10.animals 象(复数)
   subservient 驯服的
   firm 强有力的
   employed 需要(过去式)
11.captive 捕捉来的
   roped 拴住的
   plunges 猛冲(单数形式)
   screams 尖叫(单数形式)
   approaches 走近(单数形式)
   probably 可能的
   refuse 拒绝
   anger 愤怒
   fear 恐惧
12.tame 驯服的
   tethered 拴住的
   nearby 旁边
   wild 野的
   confidence 信心
   captive 捕来的
   gradually 慢慢
   quietens 静下来(单数形式)
13.establishment  场所
   ticklish 棘手的
   business 事
   achieved 完成的
   with the aid of 需要
   tame 驯服的
   captive 捕来的
14.several 几只
   customary 通常的
   the new arrival 新到的大象
   stalls 象厩
   captives 指大象
   advanced 很好的
15.completely 一定
   undisturbed 惊扰(过去式)
   plenty of  充足的
   absorb 适应
   atmosphere 气氛 
   particularly 并且
   alarming 担惊受怕的
   happening to 发生(v.-ing形式)
   companions 同伴(复数)
16.normally 正常
17.in front of 在...前面
   holding 拿着
   stick 棒
   sharp 锋利的
   metal 金属的
   point 尖头
18.assistants 助手(复数)
   mounted 骑上(过去式)
   control 控制
   captive 捕来的
   rub 抚摸
   skin 皮肤
   to the accompaniment of 在...的伴奏下
   monotonous 单调的
   soothing 顺和的
   chant 歌声
19.supposed to 据说
   induce 诱使
   pleasurable 愉快的
   sensations 感觉
   effects 效果
   reinforced 加强(过去式)
   endearing 亲切的
   epithets 外号(复数)
20.according to 按照...
   captive 捕来的
21.immediately 立刻
   susceptible 易感动的
   blandishments 讨好的话
   usually 往往
   lashes 甩动(单数形式)
   fiercely 猛烈地
   trunk 鼻子
   in all directions 各个方向
22.movements 举动(复数)
   controlled 受控制的
   metal-pointed 金属尖的
   stick 长棒
   eventually 最后
   sore 疼的
   curls 卷起来(单数形式)
   seldom 很少
   afterwards 以后
   offensive 进攻
   purposes 目的






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