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44 Patterns of culture 文化的模式 (5分钟)

2012-5-17 09:14| 发布者: admin| 查看: 1664| 评论: 0|原作者: 裴爱玲

摘要: 新概念英语 怎样如何学好英语 小学生学英语 网上英语培训 英语阅读 提高英语成绩 英语专家讲座
Passage  44  Patterns of culture   文化的模式
1.Custom has not commonly been regarded as a subject of great moment.
2.The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthy of investigation, but custom, we have a way of thinking, is behaviour at its most commonplace.
3.As a matter of fact, it is the other way around.
4.Traditional custom, taken the world over, is a mass of detailed behaviour more astonishing than what any one person can ever evolve in individual actions, no matter how aberrant.
5.Yet that is a rather trivial aspect of the matter.
6.The fact of first-rate importance is the predominant role that custom plays in experience and in belief, and the very great varieties it may manifest.
7.No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes.
8.He sees it edited by a definite set of customs and institutions and ways of thinking.
9.Even in his philosophical probing he cannot go behind these stereotypes; his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particular traditional customs.
10.John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played by custom in shaping the behaviour of the individual, as against any way in which he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the total vocabulary of his mother tongue against those words of his own baby talk that are taken up into the vernacular of his family.
11.When one seriously studies the social orders that have had the opportunity to develop autonomously, the figure becomes no more than an exact and matter-of-fact observation.
12.The life history of the individual is first and formost an accommodation to the patterns and standards traditionally handed down in his community.
13.From the moment of his birth, the customs into which he is born shape his experience and behaviour.
14.By the time he can talk, he is the little creature of his culture, and by the time he is grown and able to take part in its activities, its habits are his habits, its beliefs his beliefs, its impossibilities his impossibilities.
15. Every child that is born into his group will share them with him, and no child born into one on the opposite side of the globe can ever achieve the thousandth part.
16.There is no social problem it is more incumbent upon us to understand than this of the role of custom.
17.Until we are intelligent as to its laws and varieties, the main complicating facts of human life must remain unintelligible.
18.The study of custom can be profitable only after certain preliminary propositions have been accepted, and some of these propositions have been violently opposed.
19.In the first place, any scientific study requires that there be no preferential weighting of one or another of the items in the series it selects for its consideration.
20.In all the less controversial fields, like the study of cacti or termites or the mature of nebulae, the necessary method of study is to group the relevant material and to take note of all possible variant forms and conditions.
21.In this way, we have learned all that we know of the laws of astronomy, or of the habits of the social insects, let us say.
22.It is only in the study of man himself that the major social sciences have substituted the study of one local variation, that of Western civilization.
23.Anthropology was by definition impossible, as long as these distinctions between ourselves and the primitive, ourselves and the barbarian, ourselves and the pagan, held sway over people's minds.
24.It was necessary first to arrive at that degree of sophistication where we no longer set our own belief against our neighbour's superstition.
25.It was necessary to recognize that these institutions which are based on the same premises, let us say the supernatural, must be considered together, our own among the rest.

New words and expressions 生词和短语
Custom 风俗
commonly 一般
been regarded as 被认为(现在完成时)
subject 课题
of great moment 重要的
——————————————————
inner 内部的
uniquely 独特地
worthy of  值得
investigation 研究
way of thinking 思维方式
behaviour 行为
commonplace司空见惯
——————————————————
as a matter of fact 事实上
the other way around 情况正好相反
——————————————————
traditional 传统的
the world over 全世界
a mass of 许多
detailed 细节性的(过去分词)
behaviour 习惯行为
astonishing 引人注目(ing形式)
evolve 养成
individual 个人的
aberrant 异常的
——————————————————
trivial 次要的
aspect 方面
——————————————————
first-rate importance 最重要的
predominant 举足轻重的
experience 实践
belief 信仰
varieties丰富多彩的形式(复数)
manifest表现
——————————————————
looks at 看待(第三人称单数)
pristine 纯洁的
——————————————————
edited 剪辑过地(过去时)
definite 一定的
customs 风俗(复数)
institutions 制度
——————————————————
philosophical 哲学领域
probing 探索
go behind 超越
stereotypes 定型行为(复数)
concepts 概念(复数)
false 伪造的
have reference to 有关
particular 特定的
——————————————————
in all seriousness 严肃地
played by 起作用(过去分词)
shaping 形成
behaviour 行为
individual 个人的
affect 影响 
traditional 传统的
proportion 比例
vocabulary 词汇量
mother tongue 母语
vernacular  本国的 
——————————————————
seriously 严肃地
social orders 社会秩序
opportunity 机会
develop 研究
autonomously 自发地
figure 形象
no more than 仅仅是
matter-of-fact 实事求是
observation 观察
——————————————————
individual 个人
first and formost 首先
accommodation 生活史
patterns 生活方式(复数)
standards 准则(复数)
traditionally 传统上
handed down 世代相传 (过去分词)
community 社团
——————————————————
moment 时刻
customs 风俗(复数)
born 出生(bear过去分词)
shape 塑造
experience 经历
behaviour 行为规范
——————————————————
by the time 等到
creature 塑造的孩子
take part in 参与
habits 习惯(复数)
beliefs 信仰(复数)
impossibilities 不能做的事(复数)
——————————————————
born into 出生于
share 共有
opposite side 另一边
globe 地球
thousandth 少有的
——————————————————
social problem 社会问题
incumbent 有责任的
understand 理解
——————————————————
intelligent 理解
laws 规律性(复数)
varieties 多样性(复数)
complicating 复杂的(ing形式)
remain 留下的
unintelligible无法了解的
——————————————————
study 研究
profitable 可收获的
preliminary 基本的
propositions 主张(复数)
violently 激烈地
opposed 反对(过去分词)
——————————————————
in the first place 首先
scientific 科学的
requires 要求(第三人称单数)
preferential 优先选择的
weighting 权衡
items 因素(复数)
series 一系列
consideration 考虑
——————————————————
less 小的
controversial 有争议的
cacti 仙人掌
termites 白蚁(复数)
mature 性质
nebulae 星云
method 方法
group 汇集起来
relevant 有关的
take note of 注意
variant 异常的
conditions条件(复数)
——————————————————
in this way 用这种方法
have learned 已经了解到(现在完成时)
laws 规律(复数)
astronomy 天文学
habits 习性(复数)
social 群居的
——————————————————
himself 自身
sciences 学科(复数)
have substituted 代替(现在完成时)
local 局部地区
variation 各种情况
civilization 文明
——————————————————
anthropology 人类学
definition 定义
as long as 只要
distinctions 区别(复数)
primitive 原始人
barbarian 野蛮人
pagan异教徒
——————————————————
necessary 需要
arrive at 达到
degree 程度
sophistication 成熟
no longer 不再
against 反对
superstition 迷信
——————————————————
recognize 认识到
institutions 风俗
based on 建立在
premises 前提基础(复数)
supernatural 超自然的
be considered 加以考虑
among 在其中
——————————————————

参考译文:
1.风俗一般未被认为是什么重要的课题。
2.我们觉得,只有我们大脑内部的活动情况才值得研究,至于风俗呢,只是些司空见惯的行为而已。
3事实上,情况正好相反。
4.从世界范围来看,传统风俗是由许多细节性的习惯行为组成,它比任何一个养成的行为都更加引人注目,不管个人行为多么异常。
5.这只是问题的一个次要的侧面。
6.最重要的是,风俗在实践中和信仰上所起的举足轻重的作用,以及它所表现出来的极其丰富多采的形式。
7.没有一个人是用纯洁而无偏见的眼光看待世界。
8.人们所看到的是一个受特定风俗习惯、制度和思想方式剪辑过的世界。
9.甚至在哲学领域的探索中,人们也无法超越这些定型行为,人们关于真与伪的概念依然和特定的传统风俗有关。
10.约翰.杜威曾经非常严肃地指出:风俗在形成个人行为方面所起的作用和一个对风俗的任何影响相比,就好像他本国语言的总词汇量和自己咿呀学语时他家庭所接纳的他的词汇量之比。
11.当一个人认真地研究自发形成的社会秩序时,杜威的比喻就是实事求是观察得来的形象化的说法。
12.个人的生活史首先是适应他的社团世代相传形成的生活方式和准则。
13.从他呱呱坠地的时刻起,他所生于其中的风俗就开始塑造他的经历和行为规范。
14.等到他会说话时,他就是传统文化塑造的一个小孩子;等他长大了,能参与做各种事了,他的社团的习惯就是他的习惯,他的社团的信仰就是他的信仰,他的社团不能做的事就是他不能做的事。
15.每一个和他诞生在同一个社团中的孩子和他一样共有相同的风俗;而在地球的另一边另一个社团的孩子与他就是少有相同的风俗。
16.没有任何一个社会问题在责任上比得上风俗的作用问题那么更要求我们对它理解。
17.直到我们理解了风俗的规律性和多样性,这些人为生活中主要的复杂现象很可能还是保留在未知状态。
18.只有在某些基本的主张被接受下来、同时有些主张被激烈反对时,对风俗的研究才是全面的,才会有收获。
19.首先,任何科学研究都要求人们对可供考虑的一系列诸多能厚此薄彼,偏向某一方面。
20.在一切争议较小的领域里,如对仙人掌、白蚁或星云性质的研究,应采取的研究方法是把有关各方面的材料汇集起来,同时注意任何可能出现的异常情况和条件。
21.例如,用这种方法,我们完全掌握了天文学的规律和昆虫群居的习性。
22.只是在对人类自身的研究中,各主要的社会学科才用对一个局部地区各种情况的研究(如对西方文明的研究)来代替对全人类学的研究。
23.只要我们同原始人,我们同野蛮人,我们同异教徒之间存有的区别在人的思想中占主导地位,那么人类学按其定义来说就无法存在。
24.我们首先需要达到这样一种成熟的程度:不用自己的信仰去反对我们邻居的迷信。
25.必须认识到,这些建立在相同前提基础上的风俗,暂且可以说是超自然的东西,必须放在一起加以考虑,我们自己的风俗和其他民族的风俗都在其中。
 

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